Thursday, September 18, 2008


Obstructive Airway Management (OA management)

OA Management is given when a person’s airway is been blocked or obstructed (eg. Choking)

OA Management Sequence:

For conscious victim (Adult):

1. Approach the victim who is pointing at his/her throat or grasping his/her neck.
2. Ask if the victim is choking.
3. If yes, ask victim to cough.
4. If the victim is unable to cough, stand behind the victim.
5. Put your arms around victim’s body.
6. Link your hands near victim’s belly button or near the belt.
7. Then give the victim 5 abdominal thrusts by pulling your hands inwards and upwards. (Do not use step 7 for pregnant mother or obese people)
8. Continue until the obstruction is clear.


Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR):

CPR is given to a person whose heart has stopped beating. The aim of CPR is to restore a person’s breathing and heartbeat before professional help arrives.

1-man CPR sequence (Victim is adult):

1. Check the victim’s responsiveness.

2. If unresponsive, call ambulance 995

3. Assess the victim’s AIRWAY: using head tilt chin lift or jaw thrust to open the airway.

4. Check BREATHING by look, listen and feel for ten seconds.
- Look for rising of chest
- Listen for sounds of breathing
- Feel for breath on your cheek.

5. If there is no breathing, give 2 slow breaths (mouth to mouth ventilation) and watch for chest rise.

6. If the chest rises, check for the CIRCULATION at the carotid pulse for 5 to 10 seconds. (N.B.If the pulse is weak and slow, do not start CPR. Wait until there is completely no pulse)

7. If there is no pulse, start CPR.

8. Locate the landmark for the chest compression.

9. To locate the landmark: Slide your fingers along the rib to the point where the lowermost ribs meet at the breastbone.
: Place your middle finger at this point and your index finger above it on the
lower breastbone.

10. Place the heel of the other hand beside your index finger. Then place the first hand you have used on top of your the other hand and interlock your fingers.

11. Compress the breastbone vertically 4-5 cm downwards for 15 times. (With timing of 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5…….and 15) and followed by 2 breaths. ( 1 cycle = 15 compression and 2 ventilations)

12. Check for pulse and breathing after 4 cycles.

13. If pulse and breathing are present, place the victim in the recovery position and check for the victim’s breathing and pulse after every minute.

14. If the pulse is not present, continue step 8-11.

15. If the pulse is present but breathing is absent give mouth to mouth ventilation of 12 breaths per minute. (Timing: Blow, 2 a thousand, 3 a thousand, 4 a thousand, 5 a thousand.) Then check for breathing again.
- If there is no breathing proceed with 12 ventilation per minute.
- If there is no breathing and no pulse, go back to step 8.
- If there are breathing and pulse , turn victim to recovery position and check for breathing and pulse after every minute until ambulance comes.

Wednesday, September 10, 2008


Differences between the uses of dressings and bandages

Uses of dressings are :
1. Protect a wound from infection
2. Helps in blood clotting
3. Absorb blood or discharges

Uses of bandages are :
1. Hold dressing in place
2. Control bleeding
3. Support and immobilise injuries
4. Reduce swelling

First Aid Kit

First Aid kit is a container keeping materials necessary for first-aid together.

Basic materials for a first-aid kit:

a. 20 adhesive dressings (plasters) in many sizes
b. sterile dressings
c. sterile eye pads
d. 6 triangular bandages
e. safety pins
f. disposable gloves

Useful additions:

a. roller bandages
b. kidney dish
c. scissors
d. tweezers
e. cotton wool / cotton balls
f. non-alcoholic wound cleansing wipes
g. adhesive tapes
i. notepad, pencil

Tuesday, September 9, 2008


What is First Aid?

First Aid is the immediate assistance or treatment given to someone injured or suddenly taken ill before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor or other qualified person.

Aims of First Aid are to
1. Preserve life
2. Limit worsening of condition
3. To promote recovery

First Aid priorities
1. Assess the situation
a. Observe what has happened

b. Look for dangers to yourself or victim
c. Never put yourself at risk

2. Make the area safe
a. Protect victim from danger
b. Be aware of your limitations

3. Assess all victims and give emergency first aid
a. Assess each victim to determine treatment priorities, and treat those with

life threatening conditions first.
eg. Between a victim who has a fractured leg and a victim who is unconscious, who do you attend or help first?

4. Get help
a. Ensure that necessary help has been summoned and is on its way.

Friday, August 29, 2008



Tuesday, August 12, 2008

Peperiksaan Asas I 2008


Penyelia peperiksaan

Cikgu Murad bersama penyelia

Tension nak hafal!!!

Pelajar tekun menjawab soalan...